Artikel in Fachzeitschriften

Artikel in Fachzeitschriften (peer-reviewed)


Söhnel, K., Fischer, M. S., & Häusler, K. (2022). Treadmill vs. overground trotting-a comparison of two kinetic measurement systems. Research in Veterinary Science. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2022.06.019Externer Link

Lukas P, Ziermann JM (2022) Sequence of chondrocranial development in basal anurans—Let’s make a cranium. Frontiers in Zoology 19 (17) DOI:10.1186/s12983-022-00462-zExterner Link

Katzke J, Puchenkov P, Stark H, Economo EP (2022) A roadmap to reconstructing muscle architecture from CT data. Integrative Organismal Biology 4 (1), obac001. DOI:10.1093/iob/obac001Externer Link

Levit GS, Hoßfeld U, Naumann B, Lukas P, & Olsson L (2022) The biogenetic law and the Gastraea theory: From Ernst Haeckel's discoveries to contemporary views. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 338, 13– 27.

Jandausch K, Schwarz D, Bock B, Lukas P (2022) A decharming metamorphosis: The larval and adult morphology of the common spadefoot toad, Pelobates fuscus. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 296, 37-49


Schwarz D, Fedler MT, Lukas P, & Kupfer A (2021). Form and function of the feeding apparatus of sirenid salamanders (Caudata: Sirenidae): Three-dimensional chewing and herbivory?. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 295, 99-116

Stark H, Fischer MS, Hunt A, Young F, Quinn R, Andrada E (2021) A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the dog. Sci Rep. 11(1), 11335. DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-90058-0Externer Link

Fichtner M, Schuster S & Stark H (2021) Influence of spatial structure on protein damage susceptibility: a bioinformatics approach. Sci Rep 11, 4938. DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-84061-8Externer Link

Sartori J, Stark H (2021) Tracking tendon fibers to their insertion – a 3D analysis of the Achilles tendon enthesis in mice. Acta Biomaterialia 120: 146-155. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2020.05.001Externer Link

Lukas P (2021) Larval cranial anatomy of the Eastern Ghost Frog (Heleophryne orientalis). Acta Zoologica, 102, 452– 466.

Lukas P (2021) Hidden but not lost: the larval cranial anatomy of the Majorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis). Salamandra, 57 (3), 378-388.

Söhnel, K., Andrada, E., de Lussanet, M. H., Wagner, H., Fischer, M. S., & Rode, C. (2021). Single limb dynamics of jumping turns in dogs. Research in Veterinary Science, 140, 69-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.08.003Externer Link


Schwarz D, Gorb SN, Kovalev A, Konow N, Heiss E (2020). Flexibility of intraoral food processing in the salamandrid newt Triturus carnifex: effects of environment and prey type. J. Exp. Biol. 11. Link.

Schwarz D, Konow N, Porro LB, Heiss E (2020). Ontogenetic plasticity in cranial morphology is associated with a change in the food processing behavior in Alpine newts. Front. Zool. 17. Link.

Schwarz D, Konow N, Roba YT, Heiss E (2020). A salamander that chews using complex, three-dimensional mandible movements. J. Exp. Biol. 223, 12. https:// Link

Fichtner M, Schuster S & Stark H (2020) Determination of scoring functions for protein damage susceptibility. Biosystems 187: 104035. DOI:10.1016/J.BIOSYSTEMS.2019.104035Externer Link

Lukas P, Olsson L (2020) Sequence of chondrocranial development in the oriental fire bellied toad Bombina orientalis. Journal of Morphology, 281, 688– 701.

Söhnel, K., Rode, C., de Lussanet, M. H., Wagner, H., Fischer, M. S., & Andrada, E. (2020). Limb dynamics in agility jumps of beginner and advanced dogs. Journal of Experimental Biology, 223(7), jeb202119. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.202119Externer Link


Heiss E, Schwarz D, Konow N (2019). Chewing or not? Intraoral food processing in a salamandrid newt. J. Exp. Biol. 222, 12. Link.

Nyakatura JA, Baumgarten R, Baum D, Stark H, Youlatos D (2019) Muscle internal structure revealed by contrast-enhanced µCT and fibre recognition: The hindlimb extensors of an arboreal and a fossorial squirrel. Mammalian Biology 99: 71-80. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2019.10.007Externer Link

Lukas P, Schmidt J, Olsson L (2019) Knockdown of zax in Xenopus laevis leads to craniofacial malformations and the absence of the intramandibular joint, Vertebrate Zoology. 70, 9-22.

Eckert, P., Schmerbauch, A. E., Horvat, T., Söhnel, K., Fischer, M. S., Witte, H., & Ijspeert, A. J. (2019). Towards rich motion skills with the lightweight quadruped robot Serval. Adaptive Behavior, 28(3), 129-150. DOI:10.1177/1059712319853227Externer Link


Dickinson E, Stark H, Kupczik K (2018) Non-destructive determination of muscle architectural variables through the use of DiceCT. The Anatomical Record 301 (2): 363–377. DOI:10.1002/ar.23716Externer Link

Lukas P, Olsson L (2018) Bapx1 upregulation is associated with ectopic mandibular cartilage development in amphibians. Zoological Letters, 4, 16.

Lukas P, Olsson L (2018) Bapx1 is required for jaw joint development in amphibians. Evolution & Development, 20, 192– 206.


Lukas P, Olsson L (2017) Sequence and timing of early cranial skeletal development in Xenopus laevis. Journal of Morphology, 279, 62– 74.




Brehm G, Fischer M, Gorb S, Kleinteich T, Kühn B, Neubert D, Pohl H, Wipfler B, Wurdinger S (2015) The unique sound production of the Death’s head Hawkmoth (Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited. Naturwissenschaften – The Science of Nature 102: 43. DOI 10.1007/s00114-015-1292-5.

Penske, S., Gvoždík, V., Menegon, M., Loader, S.P. & Müller, H. (2015). Description of the tadpole of Leptopelis cf. grandiceps (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae) from the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Herpetological Journal 25:61-64.

Werneburg, I. (2015). Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex. PeerJ 3:e769

Reinhard, S., Renner, S., Kupfer, A. (2015) Sexual dimorphism and age of Mediterranean salamanders. Zoology 118(19): 19-26.

Niederschuh, S.J., Witte, H., Schmidt, M. (2015). The role of vibrissal sensing in forelimb position control during travelling locomotion in the rat (Rattus norvegicus, Rodentia). Zoology, 118(1):51-62.

Kupczik K, Stark H, Mundry R, Neininger F, Heidlauf T, Röhrle O (2015). Reconstruction of muscle fascicle architecture from iodine-enhanced microCT images: a combined texture mapping and streamline approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology 382 (7): 34–43. DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.06.034Externer Link

Nyakatura JA, Stark H (2015). Aberrant back muscle function correlates with intramuscular architecture of dorsovertebral muscles in two-toed sloths. Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift Für Säugetierkunde 80 (2): 114–121. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2015.01.002Externer Link


Piekarski, N. & Olsson, L. (2014) Resegmentation in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. J Morphol 275, 141-152 (with cover).

Ziermann, J. M., Mitgutsch, C. & Olsson, L. (2014) Analysing developmental sequences with Parsimov - A case study of cranial muscle development in anuran larvae. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 322B, 586-606.

Levit, G.S., Olsson L. & Hoßfeld, U. (2014) The Darwinian Revolution in Germany: From Evolutionary Morphology to the Modern Synthesis. Endeavour 38, 268-279.

Loader, S. P., Ceccarelli, S. F., Menegon, M., Howell, K.M., Kassahun, R., Mengistu, A. A., Saber, S. A., Gebresenbet, F., de Sá, R., Davenport, T. B. R., Larson, J. G., Müller, H., Wilkinson, M. & Gower, D. J. (2014). Persistence and stability of Eastern Afromontane forests: Evidence from brevicipitid frogs. Journal of Biogeography 41:1781-1792.

Liedtke, H. C., Müller, H., Hafner, J., Nagel, P. & Loader, S. P. (2014). Interspecific patterns for egg and clutch sizes of African Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura). Zoologischer Anzeiger 253:309-315.

San Mauro, D., Gower, D. J., Müller, H., Loader, S. P., Zardoya, R., Nussbaum, R. A. & Wilkinson, M. (2014). Life-history evolution and mitogenomic phylogeny of caecilian amphibians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 73:177-189.

Müller, H. & Larson, J. G. (2014). Description of the tadpole of Ptychadena uzungwensis (Anura: Ptychadenidae) from the Southern Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Herpetology 48:284-290.

Hilton, E. J., Konstantinidis, P., Schnell, N.K. & Dilman, C.B. (2014). Identity of a unique cartilage in the buccal cavity of gars (Neopterygii: Lepisosteiformes: Lepisosteidae). Copeia 2014:50-55.

Hammel J.U. & Nickel M. (2014). A New Flow-Regulating Cell Type in the Demosponge Tethya wilhelma - Functional Cellular Anatomy of a Leuconoid Canal System. PLoS ONE 9(11):e113153.

Fuchs, A.; Goldner, B.; Nolte, I. & Schilling, N. (2014): Ground reaction force adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs. Vet. J. 201: 307-315.

Helmsmüller, D.; Anders, A.; Nolte, I. & Schilling, N. (2014): Ontogenetic change of the weight support pattern in growing dogs. J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 254-264.

Schilling, N. & Long Jr., L.H. (2014): Axial systems and their actuation: new twists on the ancient body of craniates. Zoology 117: 1-6.

Neufuss, J., Hesse, B., Thorpe, S.K.S., Vereecke, E.E., D'Aout, K., Fischer, M.S., Schilling, N. (2014). Fibre type composition in the lumbar perivertebral muscles of primates: implications for the evolution of orthogrady in hominoids. J. Anat. 224: 113-131.

Curth, S., Fischer, M.S., Nyakatura J.A. (2014). Ichnology of an Extant Belly-Dragging Lizard - Analogies to Early Reptile Locomotion? Ichnos 21 (1): 32-43.

Krings, M., Nyakatura, J.A., Fischer, M.S., Wagner, H. (2014). The cervical spine of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the vertebrae and regionalization in their S-shaped arrangement. PLOS One 9: 1-16

Hunt, A., Schmidt, M., Fischer, M.S., Quinn, R.D. (2014). Neuromechanical Simulation of an Inter-leg Controller for Tetrapod Coordination. In: Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8608, 142-153.

Arnold, P., Fischer, M.S., Nyakatura, J.A. (2014). Soft tissue influence on ex vivo mobility in the hip of Iguana: comparison to in vivo movement and its bearing on joint motion of fossil sprawling tetrapods. J. Anat. 225 (1): 31-41

Nyakatura, J.A., Andrada, E., Curth, S., Fischer, M.S. (2014). Bridging Romer's Gap: Locomotor mechanics of a belly-dragging lizard inform debate on tetrapod locomotion during the Early Carboniferous. Evol. Biol. 41: 175-190.

Nyakatura, J.A.; Andrada, E. (2014). On vision in birds: coordination of head-bobbing and gait stabilises vertical head position in quail. Front Zool 11(1): 27.

Ogihara, N., Oku, T., Andrada, E., Blickhan, R., Nyakatura, J.A., Fischer, M.S. (2014). Planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails (Coturnix coturnix). J Exp Biol 217: 3968-3973.

Haase, D.; Nyakatura, J.A.; Denzler, J. (2014). Multi-view Active Appearance Models for the X-Ray Based Analysis of Avian Bipedal Locomotion. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis 24 (1): 86-92.

Kilbourne, B.M. (2014). Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds. Frontiers in Zoology 11: 37.

Rey, J., Fischer, M.S., Böttcher, P. (2014). Sagittal joint instability in the cranial cruciate ligament insufficient canine stifle. Caudal slippage of the femur and not cranial tibial subluxation. Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere 3: 151-156.

Kupczik, K., Chattah, N. L. T. (2014). The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study. PloS one, 9(5), e97677.


Ziermann, J. M., Infante, C., Hanken, J., & Olsson, L. (2013) Morphology of the cranial skeleton and musculature in the obligate carnivorous tadpole of Lepidobatrachus laevis (Anura, Ceratophryidae) Acta Zool 94, 101-112 (with cover).

Schmidt, J., Piekarski N. & Olsson, L. (2013) Cranial muscles in amphibians: Development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells. J Anat 222, 134-146.

Levit, G.S. Hoßfeld, U., & Olsson, L. (2013) Natural Selection: Russia embraced Wallace´s work. Nature 503, 39.

Hossfeld, U., & Olsson, L. (2013) The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009. Theory in Biosciences 132, 151-157.

Schmidt, J., Piekarski N. & Olsson, L. (2013) Cranial muscles in amphibians: Development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells. J. Anat., 222(1): 134-146.

Gower, D. J., Doherty-Bone, T., Loader, S. P., Wilkinson, M., Kouete, M. T., Tapley, B., Orton, F., Daniel, O. Z., Wynne, F., Flach, E., Müller, H., Menegon, M., Stephen, I., Browne, R. K., Fisher, M. C., Cunningham, A. C. & Garner, T. W. J. (2013). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona). EcoHealth 10:173-183.

Larson, J. G. & Müller, H. (2013). Predation on a Tomopterna luganga (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosterninae) tadpole by the larva of a water beetle (Dytiscidae: Dytiscinae) in Iringa, southern Tanzania. Herpetology Notes 6:361-362.

Loader, S. P., Menegon, M., Howell, K. H. & Müller, H. (2013). A celebration of the works of John Charles Poynton. African Journal of Herpetology 62:1-4.

Wilkinson, M., Gower, D. J., Loader, S. P. & Müller, H. (2013). A visceral synapomorphy of Scolecomorphus Boulenger, 1883 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Scolecomorphidae). African Journal of Herpetology 62:21-27.

Müller, H., Liedtke, H. C., Menegon, M., Beck, J., Balesteros, L., Nagel, P. & Loader, S. P. (2013). Forests as promoters of terrestrial life-history strategies in East African amphibians. Biology Letters 9:20121146.

Reinhard, S., Voitel, S., Kupfer, A. (2013). External fertilization and paternal care in the paedomorphic salamander Siren intermedia Barnes, 1826 (Urodela: Sirenidae).

Mongera A, Singh AP, Levesque MP, Chen YY, Konstantinidis P, Nüsslein-Volhard C (2013). Genetic lineage labeling in zebrafish uncovers novel neural crest contributions to the head, including gill pillar cells. Development 140 (4): 916-25.

Polgar, G., Zehaan, J. & Konstantinidis, P. (2013). A new species of mudskipper, Boleophtalmus poti (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Oxudercinae) from Papua New Guinea, and a key to the genus. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 61:311-321.

Vogt, L., Nickel, M., Jenner, R.A. & Deans, A.R. (2013). The need for data standards in zoomorphology. Journal of Morphology, 274, 793-808.

Nosenko, T, Schreiber, F, Adamska, M, Adamski, M, Eitel, M, Hammel, J, Maldonado, M, Müller, WEG, Nickel, M, Schierwater, B, Vacelet, J, Wiens, M and Wörheide, G (2013), "Deep metazoan phylogeny: When different genes tell different stories", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67:223-233.

Hesse, B.; Fröber, R., Fischer, M.S., Schilling, N. (2013). Functional differentiation of the human lumbar perivertebralmusculature revisited by means of muscle fibre type composition. Ann. Anat. 195: 570-580.

Krause, C., Fischer, M.S. (2013). Biodynamics of climbing: effects of substrate orientation on the locomotion of a highly arboreal lizard (Chamaeleo calyptratus). J. exp. Biol. 216: 1448-1457.

Stößel, A., Kilbourne, B.M., Fischer, M.S. (2013) Morphological integration vs. ecological plasticity in the avian pelvic limb skeleton. J. Morph. 274: 483-495.

Siegmund, L., Burmester, A., Fischer, M.S. and Wöstemeyer, J. (2013). A model for endosymbiosis: Interaction between Tetrahymena pyriformis and Escherichia coli. European Journal of Protistology 49: 552-563.

Andrada, E., Mämpel, J., Schmidt, A., Fischer, M.S., Karguth, A., Witte, H. (2013). From Biomechanics of rats' inclined locomotion to a climbing robot. Int Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics 8 (3): 191-212.

Andrada, E.; Nyakatura, J.A.; Bergmann, F.; Blickhan, R.(2013). Adjustments of global and local hindlimb properties during the terrestrial locomotion of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix). J Exp Biol216: 3906-3916.

Haase, D., Andrada, E., Nyakatura, J.A., Kilbourne, B.M. and Denzler, J. (2013). Automated approximation of center of mass position in X-ray sequences of animal locomotion. J Biomech 46(12), 2082-6.

Andrada, E., Nyakatura, J.A., Hochstein, S., Blickhan, R. (2013). Terrestrial locomotion of the common quail: one leg function for all gaits? Proc. of 6th In¬ternational Symposium on Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines (AMAM2013), ISSN 2186-9510, online.

Nyakatura, J.A., Andrada, E. (2013). A mechanical link model of two-toed sloths: no pendular mechanics during suspensory locomotion. Acta Theriol 58(1), 83-93.

Ross, C.F.; Blob, R.W.; Carrier, D.R.; Daley, M.A.; Deban, S.M.; Demes, B.; Gripper, J.L.; Iriarte-Diaz, J.; Kilbourne, B.M.; Landberg, T.; Polk, J.D.; Schilling, N. & Vanhooydonck, B. (2013): The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods. Evolution 67: 1209-1267.

Stark, H.; Fröber, R. & Schilling, N. (2013): Intramuscular architecture of the autochthonous back muscles in humans. J. Anat. 222: 214-222.

Moritz, S. & Schilling, N. (2013): Fiber-type composition in the perivertebral musculature of lizards: Implications for the evolution of the diapsid trunk muscles. J. Morph. 274: 294-306.

Karakasiliotis, K.; Schilling, N.; Cabelguen, J.-M. & Ijspeert, A.J. (2013): Where are we in understanding salamander locomotion ? Biological and robotic perspectives on the kinematics. Biol. Cyb. DOI: 10.1007/s00422-012-0540-4.

Abdelhadi, J.; Wefstaedt, P.; Galindo-Zamora, V.; Anders, A.; Nolte, I. & Schilling, N. (2013): Load redistribution in walking and trotting Beagles with induced forelimb lameness. Am. J. Vet. Res. 74: 34-39.

Riede, T.; Schilling, N. & Goller, F. (2013): The acoustic effect of vocal tract adjustments in zebra finches. J. Comp. Physiol. A. 199: 57-69.

Fischer, S.; Nolte, I. & Schilling, N. (2013): Adaptations in muscle activity to induced, short-term hindlimb lameness in trotting dogs. Plos One 8: e80987.

Helmsmüller, D.; Wefstaedt, P.; Nolte, I. & Schilling, N. (2013): Ontogenetic allometry of the Beagle. BMC Vet. Res. 9: e203.

Fischer, S.; Anders, A.; Nolte, I. & Schilling, N. (2013): Compensatory load redistribution in walking and trotting dogs with hindlimb lameness. Vet. J. 197: 746-752.

Griep, S.; Schilling, N.; Marshall, P.; Amling, G.; Hahne, L.M. & Haas, A. (2013): Pectoral girdle movements and the role of the glenohumeral joint during landing in the toad, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Zoomorphology 132: 325-338.

Förster G, Arnold D, Bischoff SJ, Schubert H, Scholle HC, Müller AH (2013). Laryngeal pacing in minipigs: in vivo test of a new minimal invasive transcricoidal electrode insertion method for functional electrical stimulation of the PCA. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 270 (1): 225-31.

Arnold D, Guntinas-Lichius O (2013): The impact of intramuscular‐inserted hooked wire electrodes and specific stimulation parameters. Biomed Tech (Berl). 2013 Sep 7. pii: /j/bmte.2013.58.issue-s1-A/bmt-2013-4026/bmt-2013-4026.xml. doi: 10.1515/bmt-2013-4026.

Stynder, D.S., Kupczik, K. (2013) Tooth root morphology in the early Pliocene African bear Agriotherium africanum (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) and its implications for feeding ecology. Journal Mamm Evol 20: 227-237.

Le Cabec, A., Gunz, P., Kupczik, K., Braga, J., Hublin, J.-J. (2013) Anterior tooth root morphology and size in Neanderthals: taxonomic and functional implications. Journal of Human Evolution 64: 169-193.


Hünefeld, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2012. The female postabdomen of the enigmatic Nannochoristidae (Insecta: Mecopterida) and its phylogenetic significance. Acta Zoologica 93: 231-238.

Ge, SQ., Daccordi, M., Beutel, R.G., Zhi, C.-J., Li, W-ZH., Yang, X.-K. 2012. Revision of the Eastern Asian genera Ambrostoma Motschulsky and Parambrostoma Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae). Systematic Entomology 37: 332-345.

Ge SQ, Wipfler B, Pohl H, Hua Y, Slipiński A, Yang XK, Beutel RG (2012). The First Complete 3D Reconstruction of a Spanish Fly Primary Larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera). PLoS One. 7 (12): e52511.

Friedemann, K., Wipfler, B., Bradler, S. & Beutel, R.G. (2012). On the head morphology of Phyllium and the phylogenetic relationships of Phasmatodea (Insecta). Acta Zoologica 93(2): 184-199.

Dallai, R., Mercati, D., Gottardo, M., Machida, R., Mashimo, Y. & Beutel, R.G. (2012). The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera). Arthropod Structure and Development 41: 51-63.

Fraulob, M., Wipfler, B., Hünefeld, F., Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. (2012). The larval abdomen of the enigmatic Nannochoristidae (Mecoptera, Insecta). Arthropod Struct Dev 41 (2): 187-198.

Wipfler B, Wieland F, DeCarlo F, Hörnschemeyer T (2012). Cephalic morphology of Hymenopus coronatus (Insecta: Mantodea) and its phylogenetic implications. Arthropod Structure and Development 41:87-100.

Wipfler B, Pohl H, Predel H. (2012). Two new genera and two new species of Man-tophasmatodea (Insecta, Polyneoptera) from Namibia. Zookeys 166: 75-98.

Deans A, Miko I, Wipfler B, Friedrich F (2012). Evolutionary phenomics and the emerging enlightenment of arthropod systematics. Invertebrate Systematics 26 (3) 323-330.

Pohl, H., Niehuis, O., Gloyna, K., Misof, B. & Beutel, R.G. 2012. A new species of Mengenilla (Insecta, Strepsiptera) from Tunisia. ZooKeys 198: 79-101.

Anton, E. & Beutel, R.G. 2012. The adult head morphology of Dascillus (L.) (Dascilloidea: Dascillidae) and Glaresis Erichson (Scarabeoidea: Glaresidae) and its phylogenetic implications. Arthropod Syst Phyl 70 (1): 3-42.

Schneeberg, K., Friedrich, F., Courtney, G.W., Wipfler, B. & Beutel, R.G. 2012. The larvae of Nymphomyiidae (Diptera, Insecta) - ancestral and highly derived? Arthropod Struct Dev 41 (3): 293-301.

Wipfler, B., Courtney, G.W., Craig, D.A, Beutel, R.G. 2012. First µ-CT based 3D reconstruction of a dipteran larva - the head morphology of Protanyderus (Tanyderidae) and its phylogenetic implications. J Morph 273 (9): 968-980.

Hünefeld, F., Mißbach, C. & Beutel, R. G. (2012) The morphology and evolution of the female postabdomen of Holometabola (Insecta). Arthropod Struct Dev 41 (4): 361-371.

Koeth, M., Friedrich, F., Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. (2012) The thoracic skeleto-muscular system of Mengenilla (Strepsiptera: Mengenillidae) and its phylogenetic implications. Arthropod Struct Dev 41 (4): 323-335.

Jałoszyński, P. & Beutel, R.G. (2012). Functional morphology and evolution of specialized mouthparts of Cephenniini (Scydmaeninae, Staphylinidae). Arthropod Struct Dev 41 (6): 593-607.

Letsch HO, Meusemann K, Wipfler B, Schütte K, Beutel RG, Misof B. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition. Proc Biol Sci. 279 (1741): 3282-3290.

Dallai, R., Mercati, D., Gottardo, M, Dossey, A.T., Machida, R., Mashimo, Y. & Beutel, R.G. (2012). The male and female reproductive systems of Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, 1918 (Zoraptera). Arthropod Struct Dev 41(4): 337-359.

Niehuis, O., Hartig, G., Grath, S., Pohl, H., Lehmann, J., Tafer, H., Donath, A., Krauss, V., Eisenhardt, C., Hertel, J., Petersen, M., Mayer, C., Meusemann, K., Peters, R.S., Stadler, P.F., Beutel, R.G., Bornberg-Bauer, E., McKenna, D.D., Misof, B. (2012). Genomic and morphological evidence converge to resolve the enigma of Strepsiptera. Current Biology 22 (14): 1309-1313.

Spangenberg, R., Hünefeld, F., Schneeberg, K., Beutel, R.G. (2012). The male postabdomen and reproductive system of Bibio marci Linnaeus, 1758 (Hexapoda: Diptera: Bibionidae). J Zool Syst Evol Res 50 (4): 264-288.

Blanke, A., Wipfler, B., Letsch, H., Koch, M., Beutel, R.G., Misof, B. (2012). Revival of Palaeoptera - head characters support a monophyletic origin of Odonata and Ephemeroptera (Insecta). Cladistics 28 (6): 560-581.

Kukalová-Peck, J. & Beutel, R.G. (2012). Is the Carboniferous †Adiphlebia lacoana really the "oldest beetle"? Critical reassessment and description of a new Permian beetle family. European Journal of Entomology 109 (4) 633-645.

Bai, M., Beutel, R.G., Song, K.-Q., Liu, W.-G., Malqin, H., Li, Sh., Hu, X.-Y. & Yang, X.-K. (2012). Evolutionary patterns of hind wing morphology in dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae). Arthropod Struct Dev 41 (5): 505-513.

Trautwein, M.D., Wiegmann, B.M., Beutel, R.G., Kjer, K. & Yeates, D.K. 2012. Advances in insect phylogeny at the dawn of the postgenomic era. Annual Review of Entomology 57: 449-68.

Beutel, R.G.& Kristensen, N.P. 2012. Morphology and insect systematics in the era of phylogenomics. Arthropod Struct Dev 41: 303-305

Hünefeld, F., Friedrich, F., Hörnschemeyer, T., Pohl, H., Beutel, R.G. 2012. The phylogeny of Holometabola and the role of morphology in the age of phylogenomics. DGaaE Nachrichten Vol. 18 (2012).

Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K. (2012) DNA barcode sequencing from old type specimens as a tool in taxonomy: a case study in the diverse genus Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PLoS One 7 (11): e49710.

Bodner F. Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2012) Species richness and host specificity among caterpillar ensembles on shrubs in the Andes of southern Ecuador. Neotropical Entomology 41 (5): 375-385.

Wipfler B, Pohl H, Predel R. Two new genera and two new species of Mantophasmatodea (Insecta, Polyneoptera) from Namibia. Zookeys. 2012;(166):75-98.

Wipfler B, Wieland F, DeCarlo F, Hörnschemeyer T. Cephalic morphology of Hymenopus coronatus (Insecta: Mantodea) and its phylogenetic implications. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2012 Jan;41(1):87-100.

Hünefeld F, Kristensen NP. The female postabdomen and genitalia of the basal moth family Heterobathmiidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera): structure and phylogenetic significance. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2012 Jul;41(4):395-407.

Schultka, R., Feicht, U., Göbbel, L. & Olsson, L. (2012) Wilhelm Roux (1850-1924) und seine Sammlung für Entwicklungsmechanik: Entstehung, Werdegang und Schicksal einer bedeutenden naturwissenschaftlichen Sammlung. Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 15, 295-321.

Hossfeld, U. Radlbeck-Ossmann & Olsson, L. (2012) Pope acknowledges Genesis is only partly historical already in 1909. Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 15, 371.

Liedtke, H. C. & Müller, H. (2012). Defensive behaviour of Kassina maculata (Anura: Hyperoliidae). Herpetology Notes 5:309-310.

Kerney, R. R., Blackburn, D. C., Müller, H. & Hanken, J. (2012). Do larval traits re-evolve? Evidence from the embryogenesis of a direct-developing salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Evolution 66:252-262.

Kuehnel, S., Kupfer, A.(2012): Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians. Frontiers in Zoology 9 (1), 12.

Kuehnel S, Herzen J, Kleinteich T, Beckmann F & Kupfer A (2012). Functional reproductive morphology: the female cloaca of an oviparous caecilian amphibian. Acta Zoologica 93: 208-221.

Konstantinidis, P. & Johnson, G.D. (2012). A Comparative Ontogenetic Study of the Tetraodontiform Caudal Complex. Acta Zoologica 93:98-114.

Konstantinidis, P. & Johnson, G.D. (2012). Ontogeny of the jaw apparatus and suspensorium of the Tetraodontiformes. Acta Zoologica 93:351-366.

Hammel, JU, Filatov, M, Herzen, J, Beckmann, F, Kaandorp, JA and Nickel, M (2012), "The non-hierarchical, non-uniformly branching topology of a leuconoid sponge aquiferous system revealed by 3D reconstruction and morphometrics using corrosion casting and x-ray microtomography", Acta Zoologica, 93: 160-170.

Steinmetz, PRH, Krauss, JEM, Larroux, C, Hammel, JU, Amon-Hassenzahl, A, Houliston, E, Wörheide, G, Nickel, M, Degnan, B and Technau, U (2012), "Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians", Natrure, 487: 231-234.

Martinand-Mari, C., Vacelet, J., Nickel, M., Wörheide, G., Mangeat, P. and Baghdiguian, S. (2012), "Cell death and renewal during prey capture and digestion in the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea (Porifera: Poecilosclerida) ", Journal of Experimental Biology, 215: 3937-3943.

Nyakatura, K. and O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10: 12.

Kerney, R. R., Blackburn, D. C., Müller, H. & Hanken, J. (2012) Do larval traits re-evolve? Evidence from the embryogenesis of a direct-developing salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Evolution 66:252-262.

Nyakatura J.A., Andrada E., Grimm N., Weise H., Fischer M.S. 2012 Kinematics and center of mass mechanics during terrestrial locomotion in northern lapwings (Vanellus vanellus, Charadriiformes). J. Exp. Zool. Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology. 317A, 580-594.

Nyakatura JA. (2012). The convergent evolution of suspensory posture and locomotion in tree sloths. Invited review for J Mammal Evol. 19:225-234.

Nyakatura JA. (2012). Automated approximation of center of mass position in X-ray sequences of animal locomotion. J Mamm Evol 19(3): 225-234.

Nyakatura JA., Andrada, E. (2012). A mechanical link model of two-toed sloths: no pendular mechanics during suspensory locomotion. Acta Theriol 58: 83-93.

Stößel, A., Fischer, M.S. 2012 Comparative intralimb coordination of avian bipedal locomotion. J. exp. Biol 215: 4055-4069.

Streitberger, K., Schweizer, M., Kropatsch, R., Dekomien, G., Distl, O., Fischer, M.S., Epplen, J.T., Hertwig, S.T. 2012 Rapid genetic diversification within dog breeds as evidenced by a case study on Schnauzers. Animal Genetics 43 (5): 577-586.

Abdelhadi, J.; Wefstaedt, P.; Nolte, I; Schilling, N. (2012): Fore-aft ground force adaptations to induced forelimb lameness in walking and trotting dogs. Plos One 7: e52202.

Deban, S.M.; Schilling, N. & Carrier, D.R. (2012): Activity of extrinsic muscles in dogs at walk, trot and gallop. J. Exp. Biol. 215: 287-300.

Le Cabec A, Gunz P, Kupczik K, Braga J, Hublin JJ. Anterior tooth root morphology and size in Neanderthals: Taxonomic and functional implications. J Hum Evol. 2012 Dec 23. doi:pii: S0047-2484(12)00181-9. 10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.08.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Le Cabec A, Kupczik K, Gunz P, Braga J, Hublin JJ. Long anterior mandibular tooth roots in Neanderthals are not the result of their large jaws. J Hum Evol. 2012 Nov;63(5):667-81.

Smith TM, Kupczik K, Machanda Z, Skinner MM, Zermeno JP. Enamel thickness in Bornean and Sumatran orangutan dentitions. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012 Mar;147(3):417-26.


Dallai, R., Mercati, D., Gottardo, M., Machida, R., Mashimo, Y. & Beutel, R.G. 2011. The male reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera): sperm structure and spermiogenesis. Arthropod Structure and Development 40 (6): 531-47.

Jałoszyński, P., Hünefeld, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2011.The evolution of "deformed" brains in ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae, Staphylinidae). Arthropod Structure and Development 41(1):17-28.

Schneeberg, K., Courtney, G.W. & Beutel, R.G. 2011. Adult head structures of Deuterophlebiidae (Insecta), a highly derived "ancestral" dipteran lineage. Arthropod Structure and Development 40(1): 93-104.

Ge, S.-Q., Hörnschemeyer, T., Friedrich, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2011. Is Crowsoniella relicta really a cucujiform beetle? Systematic Entomology 36(1): 175-179.

Wipfler, B., Machida, R., Müller, B. & Beutel, R. G. 2011. On the head morphology of Grylloblattodea (Insecta) and the systematic position of the order - with a new nomenclature for the head muscles of Neoptera. Systematic Entomology 36: 241-266.

Zarinkamar, N., Yang, X., Bao, R., Friedrich, F., Beutel, R.G., Friedrich, M. 2011. The Pax gene eyegone facilitates repression of eye development in Tribolium. EvoDevo. 2 (1): 8 (15 pp.).

Friedemann, K., Wipfler, B., Bradler, S. & Beutel, R. G. 2011. On the head morphology of Phyllium and the phylogenetic relationships of Phasmatodea (Insecta). Acta Zoologica, early view DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2010.00497.x

Hünefeld, F., Marvaldi, A., Müller, B., Lawrence, J.F. & Beutel, R. G. 2011. The male postabdomen of the "ancestral" archostematan beetle Tetraphalerus bruchi Heller, 1913 (Ommatidae) and its phylogenetic significance. Arthropod Structure and Development 40 (23): 146-158.

Mashimo, Y., Machida, R., Dallai, R., Gottardo, M., Beutel, R.G. 2011. Egg structure of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Insecta, Zoraptera, Zorotypidae).Tissue & Cell 43 (4): 230-237.

Ge, S.-Q., Daccordi, M, Beutel, R. G., Li W.-Z &, Yang, X.-K. 2011. Revision of the chrysomeline genera Potaninia, Suinzona and Taipinus (Coleoptera) from eastern Asia, with a biogeographic scenario for the Hengduan mountain region in south-western China. Systematic Entomology 36 (4): 644-671.

Dressler, C., Ge, S.-Q. & Beutel, R.G. 2011. Is Meru a specialised noterid (Coleoptera, Adephaga)? Systematic Entomology 36 (4): 705-712.

Hünefeld, F., Pohl, H., Wipfler. B., Beckmann, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2011. The male postabdomen and genital apparatus of †Mengea tertiaria, a strepsipteran amber fossil (Insecta). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research early view doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2011.00628.x

Anton, E., Niederegger, S. & Beutel, R.G. 2011. Beetles and flies collected on pig carrion in an experimental setting in Thuringia and their forensic implications. Medical & Veterinary Entomology 25: 353-364.

Trautwein, M.D., Wiegmann, B.M., Beutel, R.G., Kjer, K. & Yeates, D.K. 2011. Advances in insect phylogeny at the dawn of the postgenomic era. Annual Review of Entomology online early.

Brehm G, Bodner F, Strutzenberger P, Hünefeld F, Fiedler K (2011) NeotropicalEois(Lepidoptera: Geometridae): checklist, biogeography, diversity, and description patterns. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104: 1091-1107.

Strutzenberger P,Brehm G, Fiedler K (2011) DNA barcoding based species delimitation increases species richness count of (Geometridae) moths in a well-studied tropical mountain forest by up to 50%. Insect Science 18: 349-62. doi 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01366.x

Sihvonen P, Mutanen M, Kaila L,Brehm G, Hausmann A, Staude HS (2011) Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne 6: e20356. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020356

Beck J,Brehm G, Fiedler K. (2011) Links between the environment, abundance and diversity of Andean moths. Biotropica 43: 208-217. doi 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00689.x

Laurance WF, Useche DC, Shoo, LP, Herzog SK, Kessler M, Escobar F,Brehm G, and 40 authors (2011) Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota. Biological Conservation 144: 548-557. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.010.

König, E. and O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds. 2011. Evidence for convergent evolution in the antimicrobial peptide system in anuran amphibians. Peptides 32(1): 20-25.

Piekarski, N. & Olsson, L. (2011) A somitic contribution to the pectoral girdle in the axolotl revealed by long-term fate-mapping. Evolution & Development 13, 47-57.

Schmidt, J., Schuff, M. & Olsson, L. (2011) A role for FoxN3 in the development of cranial cartilages and muscles in Xenopus laevis with special emphasis on the novel rostral cartilages. J. Anatomy 218, 226-242.

Loader, S. P., Wilkinson, M., Cotton, J., Measey, G. J., Menegon, M., Howell, K. H., Müller, H. & Gower, D. J. (2011) Molecular phylogenetics of Boulengerula (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) and implications for taxonomy, biogeography and conservation. Herpetological Journal 21:5-16.

Nickel, M, Scheer, C, Hammel, JU, Herzen, J and Beckmann, F (2011), "The contractile sponge epithelium sensu lato - body contraction of the demosponge Tethya wilhelma is mediated by the pinacoderm ", Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 1692-1698.

Rivera, A, Hammel, JU, Haen, KM, Danka, E, Cieniewicz, B, Winters, I, Posfai, Dora, Worheide, G, Lavrov, DV, Knight, S, Hill, M, Hill, A and Nickel, M (2011), "RNA interference in marine and freshwater sponges: actin knockdown in Tethya wilhelma and Ephydatia muelleri by ingested dsRNA expressing bacteria", BMC Biotechnology, 11, 1: 67.

Nyakatura, J.A., Fischer, M.S. 2011 Functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands? J. Anat. 219: 360-374

Müller, S., Hertwig, S. T., Jetschke, G., Krüger, M., Fischer, M.S. 2011 Comparative morphometric study of the Slovakian wildcat population (Felis silvestris silvestris): Evidence for a low rate of introgression? Mamm. Biol. 76: 222-233

Schmidt, A., Fischer, M.S. 2011 The kinematic consequences of locomotion on sloped arboreal substrates in a generalized (Rattus norvegicus) and a specialized (Sciurus vulgaris) rodent. J.exp.biol. 214: 2544-2559.

Schmidt, A. (2011). Functional differentiation of the trailing and leading forelimbs during terrestrial and arboreal locomotion in the European Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia). Zoology 114, 155-164.

Stefen, C., Ibe, P., Fischer, M.S. 2011 Biplanar x-ray motion analysis of the lower jaw movement during incisor interaction and mastication in the beaver (Castor fiber L. 1758) Mamm. Biol. 76: 534-539.

Tassy, P., Fischer, M.S. 2011 Un très vieil arbre. Biosystema 28 : 63-70.

Carrier, D.R.; Anders, C. & Schilling, N. (2011): The musculoskeletal system of humans is not tuned to maximize the economy of locomotion. PNAS 108: 18631-18636.

Schilling, N. (2011): Evolution of the axial system in craniates: Morphology and function of the perivertebral musculature. Front. Zool. 8: 4.

Böl, M.; Stark, H. & Schilling, N. (2011): On a phenomenological model for fatigue effects in skeletal muscles. J. Theor. Biol. 281: 122-132.

Myatt, J.P.; Schilling, N. & Thorpe, S.K.S. (2011): Distribution patterns of fibre types in the triceps surae muscle group of chimpanzees and orangutans. J. Anat. 218: 402-412.

Böttger, M.K; Leuchtweis, J.; Schaible, H.-G.; Schmidt, M. (2011): Videoradiographic analysis of the range of motion in unilateral experimental knee joint arthritis in rats. Arthritis Research and Therapy 13, R79

Schmidt, M. (2011): Locomotion and postural behaviour. Advances in Science and Research 5, 23-39.

Haase D, Nyakatura JA, Denzler J. 2011. Multi-view active appearance models for the x-ray based analysis of avian bipedal locomotion. Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences 6835:11-20.


Polilov, A.A. & Beutel, R.G. 2010. Developmental stages of the hooded beetle Sericoderus lateralis (Coleoptera: Corylophidae) with comments on the phylogenetic position and effects of miniaturization. Arthropod Structure and Development 39: 52-69.

Beutel, R.G., Friedrich, F. & Aspöck, U. 2010. The larval head of Nevrorthidae and the phylogeny of Neuroptera (Insecta). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 533-562.

Friedrich, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2010. The thoracic morphology of Nannochorista (Nannochoristidae) and its implications for the phylogeny of Mecoptera and Antliophora. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 48: 50-74.

Schneeberg, K. & Beutel, R.G. 2010. The adult head structures of Tipulomorpha (Diptera, Insecta) and their phylogenetic implications. Acta Zoologica 92 (4): 316-343.

Beutel, R.G. & Schneeberg, K. (2010). Beetles in Darwin's Life and Work. Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 15: 141-157.

Friedrich, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2010. Good bye Halteria? The thoracic morphology of Endopterygota (Insecta) and its phylogenetic implications. Cladistics 26: 579-612.

Beutel, R.G., Zimmermann, D., Krauß, M., Randolf, S., & Wipfler, B. 2010. Head morphology of Osmylus fulvicephalus (Osmylidae, Neuroptera) and its phylogenetic implications. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 10: 311-329.

Dressler, C. & Beutel, R.G. 2010. The morphology and evolution of the adult head of Adephaga (Insecta, Coleoptera). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68: 239-287.

Beutel, R. G., Friedrich, F., Hörnschemeyer, T., Pohl, H., Hünefeld, F., Beckmann, F., Meier, R., Misof, B., Whiting, M. F. & Vilhemsen, L. 2010. Morphological and molecular evidence converging upon a robust phylogeny of the megadiverse Holometabola. Cladistics 26: 1-15.

Ge, S.-Q., Friedrich, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2010. On the systematic position and taxonomic rank of the extinct myxophagan †Haplochelus (Coleoptera). Insect Systematics and Evolution 41 (4): 329-338.

Pohl, H., Wipfler, B., Grimaldi, D., Beckmann, F. & Beutel, R. G. 2010. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42 million-year-old fossil †Mengea tertiara (Insecta, Strepsiptera). Naturwissenschaften 97: 855-859.

Longhorn SJ, Pohl HW, Vogler AP. Ribosomal protein genes of holometabolan insects reject the Halteria, instead revealing a close affinity of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010 Jun;55(3):846-59.

Pohl H. A scanning electron microscopy specimen holder for viewing different angles of a single specimen. Microsc Res Tech. 2010 Dec;73(12):1073-6.

Bodner, F,Brehm G, Homeier, J., Strutzenberger P., Fiedler K (2010) Caterpillars and host plant records for 59 species of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) from a montane rainforest in southern Ecuador. Journal of Insect Science 2010; 10: 67.

Rodríguez-Castañeda G, Dyer LA,Brehm G, Connahs H, Forkner RE, Walla TR (2010) Tropical forests are not flat: How mountains affect herbivore diversity. Ecology Letters 13: 1348-1357.

Strutzenberger P, Bodner F,Brehm G, Fiedler K (2010). Molecular phylogeny ofEois: historical signal of wing patterns and host plant use in a group of species rich tropical moths. Zoologica Scripta 39: 609-620.

Olsson, L., Levit, G.S. & Hoßfeld, U. (2010) Evolutionary developmental biology: its concepts and history with a focus on Russian and German contributions. Naturwissenschaften 97, 951-969.

Loader, S. P., Gower, D. J., Müller, H. & Menegon, M. (2010) Two new species of Callulina (Amphibia: Anura: Brevicipitidae) from the Nguru Mountains, Tanzania. Zootaxa 2694:29-42.

Kuehnel, S., Herzen, J., Kleinteich, T., Beckmann, F., Kupfer, A.: The female cloaca of an oviparous caecilian amphibian (Gymnophiona): functional and seasonal aspects. Acta Zoologica 2010

Scholz, S., Orlik, M., Gonwouo, L.N., Kupfer, A.: Demography and life history of a viviparous Central African caecilian amphibian. Journal of Zoology 280 (1), 17-24 2010

Kühnel, S., Reinhard, S., Kupfer, A.: Evolutionary reproductive morphology of amphibians: an Overview. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 57, 119-126 2010

Nickel, M (2010), "Evolutionary emergence of synaptic nervous systems: what can we learn from the non-synaptic, nerveless Porifera?", Invertebrate Biology, 129: 1-16.

Heim, I & Nickel, M (2010), "Description and molecular phylogeny of Tethya leysae sp. nov. (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) from the Canadian Northeast Pacific with remarks on the use of microtomography in sponge taxonomy", Zootaxa, 2422: 1-21.

Høye, TT and Hammel, JU (2010) "Climate change and altitudinal variation in sexual size dimorphism of arctic wolf spiders". Climate Research 41: 259-265.

Fischer, M.S., Krause, C., Lilje, K.E. 2010 Evolution of chameleon locomotion, or how to become arboreal as a reptile. Zoology 113: 67-74.

Mämpel J, Andrada E, Witte H, Trommer C, Schweitzer M, Karguth A, Schmidt A, Fischer MS 2010 Mechanical design of a climbing robot based on biomechanical analyses. Emerging Trends in Mobile Robotics: 367-374.

Nyakatura, J.A., Petrovitch, A., Fischer, M.S. 2010 Limb kinematics during locomotion in the two-toed sloth (Xenarthra: Choloepus didactylus) and its implications for the evolution of the sloth locomotor apparatus. Zoology 113: 221-234

Nyakatura, J.A., Fischer, M.S. 2010 Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the pectoral girdle during upside-down locomotion of two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus, Linné 1758). Frontiers Zool. 7 (21): 1-16.

Nyakatura, J.A., Fischer, M.S. 2010 Functional morphology and three-dimensional kinematics of the thoraco-lumbar region of the spine of the two-toed sloth. J.exp.Biol. 213: 4278-4290.

Nyakatura JA, Heymann EW. 2010. Effects of support size and orientation on symmetric gaits in free-ranging tamarins of Amazonian Peru: implications for the functional significance of primate gait sequence patterns. J Hum Evol 58: 242-251.

Schmidt, A., Fischer, M.S. 2010 Arboreal locomotion in rats - the challenge of maintaining stability. J.exp.biol. 213: 3615-3624.

Stößel, A., Junold, A., Fischer, M.S. 2010 The morphology of the eutherian ethmoidal region and its implications for higher-order phylogeny. J. J.Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 48: 167-180.

Stark, H. & Schilling, N. (2010): An architectural comparison between relaxed and contracted muscles - A novel method of studying muscle architecture. J. Biomech. 43: 2897-2903.

Schilling, N. & Carrier, D.R. (2010): Function of the epaxial muscles in walking, trotting, and galloping dogs: Implications for the evolution of epaxial muscle function in tetrapods. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 1490-1502.

Hesse, B.; Fischer, M.S. & Schilling, N. (2010): Distribution pattern of muscle fiber types in the perivertebral musculature of two different sized species of mice. Anat. Rec. 293: 446-463.

Cunningham, C.B; Schilling, N.; Anders, C. & Carrier, D.R. (2010): The influence of foot posture on the cost of transport in humans. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 790-797.

Schilling, N. & Deban, S.M. (2010): Fiber-type distribution of the perivertebral musculature in Ambystoma. J. Morph. 271: 200-214.

Böl, M.; Schilling, N. & Stark, H. (2010): Micromechanical modelling of skeletal muscles: from the single fibre to the whole muscle. Arch. Appl. Mech. 80: 557-567.

Preuschoft, H.; Hohn, B.; Scherf, H.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, C. & Witzel, U. (2010): Functional analysis of the primate shoulder. Int. J. Primatol. 31, 301 - 320.


Polilov, A.A. & Beutel, R.G. 2009. Miniaturization effects in developmental stages of Mikado sp. (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae), one of the smallest free-living insects. Arthropod Structure and Development 38: 247-270.

Bravo, F., Pohl, H., Neto, A., Beutel, R.G. 2009. Bahiaxenidae, a "living fossil" and a new family of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda) discovered in Brazil. Cladistics 25: 614-623.

Neugart, C., Schneeberg, K. & Beutel, R.G. 2009. The morphology of the larval head of Tipulidae (Diptera, Insecta) - the dipteran groundplan and evolutionary trends. Zool. Anz. 248: 215-235.

Bernard, D., Ribera, I, Komarek, A. & Beutel, R.G. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera, Polyphaga) based on molecular data and morphological characters of adults and immature stages. Insect Systematics and Evolution 40: 3-41.

Beutel, R.G., Kristensen, N.-P. & Pohl, H. 2009. Resolving insect phylogeny: The significance of cephalic structures of the Nannomecoptera in understanding endopterygote relationships. Arthropod Structure and Development 38 (5): 427-460.

Eberhard, M.J.B, Pass, G., Picker, M.D., Beutel, R.G., Predel, R. & Gorb, S. N. 2009. Structure and function of the arolium of Mantophasmatodea (Insecta). Journal of Morphology 270 (10): 1247-1261.

Osswald, J., Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. 2009. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: The thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera). Arthropod Structure and Development 39 (4): 287-304.

Xiaoyun, Y., Weber, M., Zarin-Kamar, N., Posnien, N., Friedrich, F., Wiegand, B., Beutel, R.G., Damen, W., Bucher, G., Klingler, M. & Friedrich, M. 2009. Probing the Drosophila retinal determination gene network in Tribolium (II): the Pax6 genes eyeless and twin of eyeless. Developmental Biology 333 (1): 215-27.

Beutel, R.G., Leschen, R.A.B. & Friedrich, F. 2009. Darwin, Beetles and Phylogenetics. Naturwissenschaften 96: 1293-1312.

Axmacher J,Brehm G, Hemp A, Tünte H, Lyaruu HVM, Müller-Hohenstein K, Fiedler K (2009) Determinants of diversity in afrotropical herbivorous insects (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): plant diversity, vegetation structure, or abiotic factors? Journal of Biogeography 36: 337-349.

Krumbholz, A., O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds, P. Wutzler, and R. Zell. 2009. Phylogenetics, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 9(5): 784-799.

Ericsson, R., Ziermann, J.M., Piekarski, N., Schubert, G., Joss, J. & Olsson, L. (2009) Cell fate and timing in the evolution of neural crest and mesoderm development in the head region of amphibians and lungfishes. Acta Zoologica 90 (Suppl. 1), 264-272.

Kundrat, M., Joss, J. & Olsson, L. (2009) Prosencephalic neural folds give rise to neural crest cells in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 312B, 83-94.

Mitgutsch, C., Olsson, L. & Haas, A. (2009) Early embryogenesis in discoglossoid frogs: a study of heterochrony at different taxonomic levels. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Biology 47, 248-257.

Olsson, L. (2009) Erik Stensiö. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon 33, 358-363.

Göbbel, L., Schultka, R. & Olsson, L. (2009) Collecting and dissecting nature: Meckel's Zootomical Museum at the University of Halle, Germany). Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 12, 97-114.

Reiss, C., Hossfeld, U., Olsson, L., Levit, G.S. & Lemuth, O. (2009) Das autobiographische Manuskript des Entwicklungsbiologen Julius Schaxel (1887-1943) vom 24. Juli 1938 - Versuch einer Kontextualizierung. Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 13, 3-52.

Müller, H., Wilkinson, M., Loader, S. P., Wirkner, C. S. & Gower, D. J. (2009) Morphology and function of the head in foetal and juvenile Scolecomorphus kirkii (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Scolecomorphidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 96:491-504.

Sánchez-Villagra, M. R., Müller, H., Scheil, C. A., Scheyer, T. M., Nagashima, H. & Kuratani, S. (2009) Skeletal development in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis (Testudines: Trionychidae). Journal of Morphology 270:1381-1399.

Woltering, J. M., Vonk, F. J., Müller, H., Bardine, N, Tuduce, I. L., de Bakker, M. A., Knöchel, W., Sirbu, I. O., Durston, A. J. & Richardson, M. K. (2009) Axial patterning in snakes and caecilians: evidence for an alternative interpretation of the Hox code. Developmental Biology 332:82-89.

Scholz, S., Orlik, M., Gonwouo, L.N., Kupfer, A.: Demography and life history of a viviparous Central African caecilian amphibian. Journal Of Zoology: 37 (1), 17 2009

Kupfer, A.: Sexual size dimorphism in caecilian amphibians: analysis, review and directions for future research. Zoology 112 (5), 362-369 2009

Schlüpmann, M., Kupfer, A.: Methoden der Amphibienerfassung-eine Übersicht. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie, Supplement 15, 7-84 2009

Haacks, M., Bock, D., Drews, A., Flottmann, H.J., Geske, C., Kupfer, A., Ortmann, D., Podloucky, R.: Nationwide surveys of great crested newts under the Habitats Directive Experiences with different trap types. Natur und Landschaft (Stuttgart) 84 (6), 276 2009

Werneburg I. & Hertwig S.T. (2009). Head morphology of the ricefish, Oryzias latipes (Teleostei: Beloniformes). Journal of Morphology 270(9):1095-1106.

Hammel, J.U., Herzen, J., Beckmann, F. and Nickel, M. (2009), "Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma", Frontiers in Zoology, 6, 1: 19.

Høye, TT, Hammel, JU, Fuchs, T and Toft, S (2009) "Climate change and sexual size dimorphism in an Arctic spider". Biology Letters 5(4): 542-544.

Krüger, M., Hertwig, S.T., Jetschke, G., Fischer, M.S. 2009 Evaluation of anatomical characters and the question of hybridization with domestic cats in the wildcat population of Thuringia, Germany. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 47: 268-282.

Hertwig, S.T., Schweizer, M., Stepanow, S., Jungnickel, A., Böhle, U.-R., Fischer, M.S. 2009 Regionally high rates of hybridization and introgression in German wildcat populations (Felis silvestris, Carnivora, Felidae). J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 47: 283-297.

Deban, S.M & Schilling, N. (2009): Activity of trunk muscles during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Ambystoma maculatum. J. Exp. Biol. 212: 2949-2959.

Schilling, N. (2009): Metabolic profile of the perivertebral muscles in small therian mammals: Implications for the evolution of the mammalian trunk musculature. Zoology 112: 279-304.

Wagner, H.; Puta, C.; Anders, C.; Petrovitch, A.; Schilling, N. & Scholle, H.-C. (2009): Chronischer unspezifischer Rückenschmerz - Von der Funktionsmorphologie zur Prävention. Manuelle Medizin 47: 39-51.

Schilling, N. & Carrier, D.R. (2009): Function of the epaxial muscles during trotting. J. Exp. Biol. 212: 1053-1063.

Schilling, N.; Fischbein, T.; Yang, E.P. & Carrier, D.R. (2009): Function of the extrinsic hindlimb muscles in trotting dogs. J. Exp. Biol. 212: 1036-1052.

Böttger, M.K.; Weber, K.; Schmidt, M.; Gajda, M.; Bräuer, R.; Schaible, H.-G. (2009): Gait abnormalities differentially indicate pain or structural joint damage in monoarthicular antigen-induced arthritis. Pain 145, 142 - 150.

Schmidt, M.; Fischer, M.S. (2009): Morphological integration in mammalian limb proportions: dissociation between function and development. Evolution 63, 749-766.


Beutel, R.G., Ge, S.-Q. & Hörnschemeyer, T. 2008. On the head morphology Tetraphalerus, the phylogeny of Archostemata and the basal branching events in Coleoptera. Cladistics 23: 1-29.

Friedrich, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2008. The thorax of Zorotypus (Hexapoda, Zoraptera) and a new nomenclature for the musculature of Neoptera. Arthropod Structure and Development 37: 29-54.

Beutel, R.G., Ribera, I. & Bininda-Emonds, O. 2008. A genus-level supertree of Adephaga (Coleoptera). Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 7: 255-269.

Beutel, R.G. & Ge, S.-Q. 2008. The larval head of Raphidia (Raphidioptera, Insecta) and its phylogenetic significance. Zoology 11: 89-113.

Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. 2008. The evolution of Strepsiptera. Zoology 111: 318-338.

Beutel, R.G., Krogmann, L. & Vilhelmsen, L.T. 2008.The larval head morphology of Xyela sp. (Xyelidae, Hymenoptera) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 46(2): 118-132.

Beutel, R.G. & Gorb, S. 2008. Evolutionary scenarios for unusual attachment devices of Phasmatodea and Mantophasmatodea (Insecta). Systematic Entomology 33: 501-510.

Beutel, R.G., Friedrich, F. & Whiting, M.F. 2008. Head morphology of Caurinus (Boreidae, Mecoptera) and its phylogenetic implications. Arthropod Structure and Development 37: 418-433.

Vilhelmsen, L., Turrisi, G.F. & Beutel, R.G. 2008.Distal leg morphology, subgenual organs and host detection in Stephanidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Journal of Natural History 42: 1649-1663.

Beutel, R.G. & Baum, E. 2008. A longstanding entomological problem finally solved? Head morphology of Nannochorista (Mecoptera, Insecta) and possible phylogenetic implications. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 46 (4): 346-367.

Beutel, R.G. & Friedrich, F. 2008b. Comparative study of larval head structures of Megaloptera (Hexapoda). European Journal of Entomology 105: 917-938.

Balke, M., Ribera, I., Beutel, R.G., Viloria, A., Garcia, M. & Vogler, A. P. 2008. Systematic placement of the recently discovered beetle family Meruidae (Coleoptera: Dytiscoidea) based on molecular data. Zoologica Scripta 37 (6): 647-650.

Friedrich, F., Farell, B.D. & Beutel, R.G. 2008. The thoracic morphology of Archostemata and the relationships of the extant suborders of Coleoptera (Hexapoda). Cladistics 25: 1-37.

Beutel, R.G. & Friedrich, F. 2008. The phylogeny of Archostemata (Coleoptera) and new approaches in insect morphology. Entomologia Generalis 31 (2): 141-154.

Colwell RK,Brehm G, Cardelús C, Gilman AC, Longino JT (2008) Global warming, elevational range shifts, and lowland biotic attrition in the wet tropics. Science 322: 258-261.

Nöske NM, Hilt N, Werner FA,Brehm G, Fiedler K, Sipman HJM, Gradstein SR (2008) Disturbance effects on diversity of epiphytes and moths in a montane forest in Ecuador. Basic and Applied Ecology 9 :4-12. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2007.06.014

Fiser, C., O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds, A. Blejec, and B. Sket. 2008. Can heterochrony help explain the high morphological diversity within the genus Niphargus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)? Organisms Diversity & Evolution 8(2): 146-162.

Krumbholz, A., O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds, P. Wutzler, and R. Zell. 2008. Evolution of four BK virus subtypes. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 8(5): 632-643.

Welch, J.J., O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds, and L. Bromham. 2008. Correlates of substitution rate variation in mammalian protein-coding sequences. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:53.

Depew. M. J. & Olsson, L. (2008) Symposium on the evolution and development of the vertebrate head. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 310B, 287-293.

Ericsson, R., Joss, J. & Olsson, L. (2008) The fate of cranial neural crest cells in the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri). J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 310B, 345-354.

Mitgutsch, C., Piekarski, N., Olsson, L. & Haas, A. (2008) Heterochronic shifts in the migration of cranial neural crest cells in two ranid frogs. Acta Zoologica 89, 69-78.

Sánchez-Villagra, M.R., Ziermann, J.M. & Olsson, L. (2008) Limb chondrogenesis in Graptemys nigrinoida (Emydidae) with comments on the primary axis and the digital arch in turtles. Amphibia-Reptilia 29, 85-92.

Voigt, K. & Olsson, L. (2008) Molecular phylogenetic and scanning electron microscopical analyses places the Choanephoraceae and the Gilbertellaceae in a monophyletic group within the Mucorales (Zygomycetes, Fungi). Acta Biologica Hungarica 59, 365-383.

Kupfer, A., Wilkinson, M., Gower, D. J., Müller, H. & Jehle, R. (2008) Care and parentage in a skin-feeding caecilian amphibian. Journal of Experimental Zoology 309A:460-467.

Wilkinson, M., Kupfer, A., Marques-Porto, R., Jeffkins, H., Antoniazzi, M.M., Jared, C.: One hundred million years of skin feeding? Extended parental care in a Neotropical caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Biology Letters 4 (4), 358-361 2008

Hammel, J.U. and Nickel, M. (2008), "Pardosa hyperborea (Araneae: Lycosidae) spreading north in Greenland? First report from Disko Island (West Greenland), with remarks on the biogeography of the species. ", Entomologiske Meddelelser, 76: 41-47.

Hammel, J.U., Herzen, J., Beckmann, F. and Nickel, M. (2008), "Microtomography based three-dimensional morphometrics on developing buds of the sponge Tethya wilhelma", Journal of Morphology, 269: 1475-1475.

Nickel, M. (2008), "Reevaluating the elementary (pre-)nervous system: new morphological, physiological and genomic evidence from sponges", Journal of Morphology, 269: 1468.

Ren, L., Butler, M., Miller, C., Paxton, H., Schwerda, D., Fischer, M.S., Hutchinson, J.R. 2008 The movements of limbs segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants. J. exp. Biol. 211: 2735-2751.

Schmidt, M. (2008): Forelimb proportions and kinematics: How are small primates different from other small mammals? J. Exp. Biol. 211, 3775-3789.


Komarek, A. & Beutel, R.G. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of Anacaenini (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilinae) based on morphological characters of adults. Systematic Entomology 32: 205-226.

Beutel, R.G. & Vilhelmsen, L.B. 2007. Head anatomy of Xyelidae (Hexapoda: Hymenoptera) and phylogenetic implications. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 7: 207-230.

Baum, E., Dressler, C. & Beutel, R.G. 2007. Head structures of Karoophasma sp. (Mantophasmatodea) with phylogenetic implications. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 45: 104-119.

Komarek, A. & Beutel, R.G. 2007. Problems in taxonomy and suggestions for a standardized description of new insect taxa. Entomological Problems 36 (2): 55-70.

Baum, E., Beutel, R.G. & Hertel, W. 2007. The head capsule, central nervous system and head circulatory system of an aberrant orthopteran, Prosarthria teretrirostris (Caelifera, Hexapoda). Zoology 110: 147-160.

Beutel, R.G., Bocak, L. & Bocakova, M. 2007. Are Polyphaga (Coleoptera) really a basal neopteran lineage - a reply to Kazantsev. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 88: 153-158.

Ge, S.-Q., Beutel, R.G. & Yang, X.-K. 2007.Thoracic morphology of adults of Derodontidae and Nosodendridae and its phylogenetic implications (Coleoptera). Systematic Entomology 32: 635-667.

Brehm G(2007) Contrasting patterns of vertical stratification in two moth families in a Costa Rican lowland rain forest. Basic and Applied Ecology 8: 44-54.

Brehm G, Colwell RK, Kluge J (2007) The role of environment and mid-domain effect on moth species richness along a tropical elevational gradient. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 205-219.

Brehm G,Hartmann T, Willmott KR (2007) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and pharmacophagous Lepidoptera visitors ofPrestonia amabilis(Apocynaceae) in a montane rain forest in Ecuador. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94: 465-475.

Fiedler K,Brehm G, Hilt N, Süssenbach D, Onore G, Bartsch D, Racheli L, Häuser CL (2007) Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae, Hedylidae, Pyraloidea, Sphingidae, Saturniidae, and Uraniidae (moths) - Checklist Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, S. Ecuador). Ecotropical Monographs 4: 155-217.

Häuser CL, Fiedler K, Bartsch D,Brehm G, Kling M, Süssenbach D, Onore G (2007) Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) - Checklist Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, S. Ecuador). Ecotropical Monographs 4: 145-154.

Hilt N,Brehm G, Fiedler K (2007) Temporal dynamics of rich moth ensembles in the montane forest zone in southern Ecuador. Biotropica 39: 94-104.

Haupt, C.; Richter, S. (2008): Limb articulation in caridoid crustaceans revisited - new evidence from Euphausiacea (Malacostraca). Arthropod Structure & Development 37: 221-233.

Richter, S.; Olesen, J.; Wheeler, W.C. (2007): Branchiopod phylogeny - a combined analysis using morphology and six molecular loci. Cladistics 23: 301-336.

Kirsch, R.; Richter, S. (2007). The nervous system of Leptodora kindtii (Branchiopoda, Cladocera) surveyed with Confocal Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), including general remarks on the branchiopod neuromorphological ground pattern. Arthropod Structure & Development 36: 143-156.

Brösing, A.; Richter, S.; Scholtz, G. (2007): Phylogenetic analysis of the Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda) based on characters of the foregut with establishment of a new taxon. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 45: 20-32.

Wirkner, C.S.; Prendini, L. (2007): Comparative morphology of the hemolymph vascular system of scorpions - a survey using corrosion casting, MicroCT and 3D-reconstruction. Journal of Morphology 268: 401-413.

Szucsich, N.U.; Wirkner, C.S. (2007): Homology - a synthetic concept of evolutionary robustness of patterns. Zoologica Scripta 36: 281-289.

Wirkner, C.S.; Richter, S. (2007): Comparative analysis of the circulatory system in Amphipoda (Malacostraca, Crustacea). Acta Zoologica 88: 159-171.

Wirkner, C.S.; Richter, S. (2007): The circulatory system and its spatial relations to other major organ systems in Spelaeogriphacea and Mictacea (Malacostraca, Crustacea) - a three-dimensional analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149: 629-642.

Wirkner, C.S.; Richter, S. (2007): The circulatory system of Mysidacea revisited - implications for the phylogenetic position of Mysida and Lophogastrida (Malacostraca, Crustacea). Journal of Morphology 268: 311-328.

Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., J.E. Jeffery, M.R. Sánchez-Villagra, J. Hanken, M.W. Colbert, C. Pieau, L. Selwood, C.J. ten Cate, A. Raynaud, C.K. Osabutey, and M.K. Richardson. 2007. Forelimb-hindlimb developmental timing differences across tetrapod phylogeny. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:182.

Fritz, U. and O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds. 2007. When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone. Zoology 110(4): 298-307. (Fritz, U. and O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds. 2008. Erratum to "When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone." [Zoology 110 (2007) 298-307] Zoology 111(1): 84.)

Higdon, J.W., O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds, R.M.D. Beck, and S.H. Ferguson. 2007. Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:216.

Göbbel, L., Schultka, R., Klunker, R., Stock, K., Wand, D., Olsson, L., Opitz, JM., Gerlach, A. & Tönnies, H. (2007) Nuchal cystic hygroma in five fetuses from 1819 and 1826 in the Meckel Anatomical Collections at the University of Halle, Germany. Am. J. Med. Genet. A, 143, 119-128.

Ziermann, J. & Olsson, L. (2007) Cranial muscle development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae) J. Morphol. 268, 791-804.

Ziermann, J. & Olsson, L. (2007) A new staging table for stages relevant to cranial muscle development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae). J. Morphol. (published online as an electronic supplement to 36)

Piekarski, N. & Olsson, L. (2007) Muscular derivatives of the cranialmost somites revealed by long-term fate mapping in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Evolution & Development, 6, 566-578.

Olsson, L. (2007) A clash of traditions. Comparative and experimental embryology in Sweden as exemplified by the research of Sven Hörstadius and Gösta Jägersten. Theory in biosciences 126, 117-129.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2007) Nature and Hitler. Invited essay for Nature online, available at

Reiss, C., Springer, S., Hossfeld, U., Olsson, L. & Levit, G.S. (2007) Introduction to the autobiography of Julius Schaxel. Theory in biosciences 126, 165-175.

Heim, I., Nickel, M. and Brümmer, F (2007), "Phylogeny of the genus Tethya (Tethyidae: Hadromerida: Porifera): molecular and morphological aspects", Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 87, 06: 1615-1627.

Fischer, M.S. & Witte, H.F. 2007 Legs evolved only at the end! Phil Trans. R. Soc. A. 365: 185-198

Moritz, S., Fischer, M.S. & Schilling, N. (2007): Three-dimensional fibre type distribution in the paravertebral muscles of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius f. furo) with relation to functional demands during locomotion. Zoology 110: 197-211.

Schmidt, M. & Schilling, N. (2007): Fibre type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading. J. Hum. Evol. 52: 401-419.

Nyakatura, J.; Fischer, M.S.; Schmidt, M. (2007): Gait parameter adjustments of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Callitrichidae) to locomotion on inclined arboreal substrates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 135, 13-26.


Anton, E. & Beutel, R.G. 2006. On the head morphology of Lepiceridae (Coleoptera: Myxophaga) and the systematic position of the family and suborder. European Journal of Entomology 103: 85-95.

Beutel, R.G., Balke, M. & Steiner, W.E. 2006. On the systematic position of Meruidae (Coleoptera, Adephaga) and the phylogeny of the smaller hydradephagan families. Cladistics 22: 102-131.

Friedrich, F. & Beutel, R.G. 2006. The pterothoracic skeletomuscular system of Scirtoidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga) and its implications for the relationships of the beetle suborders. Journal of Zoological Systematics andEvolutionary Research 44 (4): 290-315.

Beutel, R.G. & Gorb, S. 2006. A revised interpretation of the evolution of attachment structures in Hexapoda (Arthropoda), with special emphasis on Mantophasmatodea. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 64 (1): 3-25.

Bernhard, D., Schmidt, C., Korte, A., Fritzsch, G. & Beutel, R.G. 2006. From terrestrial to aquatic habitats and back again - molecular insights into the evolution and phylogeny of Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera) using multigene analyses. Zoologica Scripta 35: (6) 597-306.

Beutel, R.G. & Pohl, H. 2006. Endopterygote systematics - where do we stand and what is the goal (Hexapoda, Arthropoda). Systematic Entomology 31: 202-219.

Brehm G, Axmacher JC (2006) A comparison of manual and automatic moth sampling methods (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae) in a rain forest in Costa Rica. Environmental Entomology 35: 754-764.

Hilt N,Brehm G, Fiedler K (2006) Diversity and ensemble composition of geometrid moths along a successional gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 155-166.

Richter, S.; Kornicker, L.S. (2006): The mandibles of a halocyprid ostracod (Halocypridae; Halocypridina; Ostracoda) - a new record of mandibular gnathal edges with a 'lacinia-mobilis'. Journal of Crustacean Biology 26: 113-118.

Hilken, G.; Wirkner, C.S.; Rosenberg, J. (2006): On the structure and function of the aortic diverticles in Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha). The Norwegian Journal of Entomology 53: 107-112.

Cerny, R., Horacek, I. & Olsson, L. (2006) The Trabecula cranii: Development and homology of an enigmatic vertebrate head structure. Animal Biology 56, 503-518.

Levit, G.S, Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2006) From the "Modern Synthesis" to Cybernetics: Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen (1884-1963) and his reserach program for a synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 306B, 89-106.

Olsson, L. & Hoßfeld, U. (2006) Netzwerke: Die Korrespondenz von Ernst HAECKEL nach Schweden. Verhandlungen zur Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie 12, 157-175.

Hoßfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2006) Freedom of the mind got Nature banned by the Nazis. Nature 443, 271.

Olsson, L. (2006) Empirical evidence against natural selection: Douglas Melin and the Swedish Amazonas expedition 1923-25. Jahrbuch für Europeische Wissenschaftskultur 2, 125-146.

Olsson, L., Hossfeld, U. & Levit, G.S. (2006) German-Swedish networks in race biology: Hans F. K. Günther and the Swedish race biology institute. Uppsala Newsletter for the History of Science 38, 6-7.

Levit, G.S, Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2006) Creationists attack secular education in Russia. Nature 444, 265.

Nöthlich R., Wetzel, N., Hossfeld, U., & Olsson, L. (2006) "Ich acquirierte das Schwein sofort, ließ dem Niederstechen die Pfoten Abhacken u. schickte dieselben an Darwin" - Der Briefwechsel von Otto Zacharias mit Ernst Haeckel (1874-1898). Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 11, 177-248.

Levit, G.S. & Olsson, L. (2006) "Evolution on rails": Mechanisms and levels of orthogenesis. Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 11, 99-138.

Haas A, Hertwig S, Das I. Extreme tadpoles: the morphology of the fossorial megophryid larva, Leptobrachella mjobergi. Zoology (Jena). 2006;109(1):26-42.

Beck, R.M.D., O.R.P. Bininda-Emonds, M. Cardillo, F.-G.R. Liu, and A. Purvis. 2006. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6:93.

Fischer, M.S. & Blickhan, R. 2006 The tri-segmented limbs of therian mammals: kinematics, dynamics, and self-stabilization. A review. J. exp. Zool. 305A: 935-952.

Hutchinson, J.R.; Schwerda, D.; Famini, D.J.; Dale, R.H.I.; Fischer, M.S.; Kram, R. 2006 The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size J.exp. Biol. 209: 3812-3827

Schumann, N.P.; Biedermann,F.H.W.; Arnold, D.; Jinnah, H.A.; Grassme, R.; Fischer, M.S. & Scholle, H.C. 2006 Treadmill locomotion in normal mice - Step related multi-channel EMG profiles of thigh muscles. Pathophysiology 13. 245-255.

Wank, V., Fischer, M.S.; Walter, B. & Bauer, R. 2006 Muscle growth and fiber type composition in hindlimb muscles during postnatal development of pigs. Cells Tissues Organs 182: 171-181.

Schilling, N. & Hackert, R. (2006): Sagittal spine movements of small therian mammals during asymmetrical gaits. J. Exp. Biol. 209: 3925-3939.

Hackert, R.; Schilling, N. & Fischer, M.S. (2006): Mechanical self-stabilization, a working hypothesis for the study of the evolution of body proportions in terrestrial mammals ? C. R. Palevol. 5: 541-549.

Schilling, N. & Petrovitch, A. (2006): Postnatal allometry of the skeleton of Tupaia glis (Scandentia: Tupaiidae) and Galea musteloides (Rodentia: Caviiidae) - a test of the three-segment hypothesis. Zoology: 109(2): 148-163.


Beutel, R.G. & Pohl, H. 2005. Head structures of males of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda) with emphasis on basal splitting events within the Order. Journal of Morphology 244: 1-14.

Beutel, R.G. & Friedrich, F. 2005. Comparative study of larvae of Tenebrionoidea (Cucujiformia, Coleoptera), European Journal of Entomology 102 (2): 241-164.

Beutel, R.G. & Leschen, R.A.B. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera) based on characters of larvae and adults. Systematic Entomology 30: 510-548.

Beutel, R.G. & Weide, D. 2005. Cephalic anatomy of Zorotypus hubbardi (Hexapoda: Zoraptera): New evidence for a relationship with Acercaria. Zoomorphology 124: 121-136.

Balke, M., Ribera, I. & Beutel, R.G. 2005. The systematic position of Aspidytidae, the diversification of Dytiscoidea (Coleoptera, Adephaga) and the phylogenetic signal of third codon positions. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43 (3): 223-242.

Navarrete-Heredia, J.L., Cortés-Aguilar, J. & Beutel, R.G. 2005. New findings on the enigmatic beetle family Lepiceridae (Coleoptera: Myxophaga). Entomologische Abhandlungen 62 (2): 193-201.

Pohl, H., Beutel, R.G. & Kinzelbach, R. 2005. Protoxenidae fam. n. (Insecta, Strepsiptera) from Baltic amber - a 'missing link' in strepsipteran phylogeny. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 123-134.

Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. 2005. The phylogeny of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda). Cladistics 21: 1-47.

Hünefeld, F. & Beutel, R.G.2005. The sperm pumps of Strepsiptera and Antliophora (Hexapoda). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43 (4): 297-306.

Beutel, R.G., Pohl, H. & Hünefeld, F. 2005. Strepsipteran brains and effects of miniaturisation. Arthropod Structure and Development 34: 301-313.

Richter, S. (2005): Homologies in phylogenetic analyses - concept and tests. Theory in Biosciences 124: 105-120.

Giribet, G.; Richter, S.; Edgecombe, G.D.; Wheeler, W.C. (2005): The position of Crustacea within Arthropoda: evidence from nine molecular loci and morphology. Crustacean Issues 16: 307-352.

Göbbel, L., Schultka, R., Klunker, R., Stock, K., Wand, D., Olsson, L., Gerlach, A. & Tönnies, H. (2005) Acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) and club foot diagnosed in a specimen from 1812 in the Anatomical Collections at the University of Halle, Germany. Am. J. Med. Genet. A, 137, 263-268.

Olsson, L., Ericsson, R. & Cerny, R. (2005) Vertebrate head development: Segmentation, novelties and homology. Theory in Biosciences, 124, 145-163.

Olsson, L. & Hoßfeld, U. (2005) En översikt av den internationella Haeckelreceptionen och början till en kartläggning av Ernst Haeckels svenska korrespondens. Lychnos 2004, 207-226.

Olsson, L. (2005) Alternatives to Darwinism in Sweden: Lamarckism and idealistic morphology, disbelief in mutations and the poverty of selection. Jahrbuch für Europäische Wissenschaftskultur 1, 47-60.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2005) The history of the homology concept and the "Phylogenetisches Symposium". Theory in Biosciences 124, 243-253.

Svensson, M., Haas, A. (2005) Evolutionary innovation in the vertebrate jaw: a derived morphology in anuran tadpoles and its possible developmental origin. BioEssays 27:526-532.

Schilling, N. (2005): Ontogenetic development of locomotion in small mammals - a kinematic study. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 4013-4034.

Schilling, N. (2005): Characteristics of paravertebral muscles - fibre type distribution pattern in the pika, Ochotona rufescens (Mammalia: Lagomorpha). J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 43(1): 38-48.

Schilling, N.; Arnold, D.; Wagner, H. & Fischer, M.S. (2005): Evolutionary aspects and muscular properties of the trunk - Implications for human low back pain. Pathophysiology 12 (4): 233-242.

Wagner, H.; Anders, C.; Puta, C.; Petrovitch, A.; Mörl, F.; Schilling, N.; Witte, H. F. & Blickhan, R. (2005): Musculoskeletal support of lumbar spine stability. Pathophysiology 12 (4): 257-265.

Schmidt, M. (2005): Quadrupedal locomotion in squirrel monkeys (Cebidae: Saimiri sciureus) - A cineradiographic study of limb kinematics and related substrate reaction forces. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128, 359-370.

Schmidt, M. (2005): Hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals? J. Exp. Biol. 208, 3367-3383.


Leschen, R.A.B. & Beutel, R.G. 2004. Ocellar atavism in Coleoptera: plesiomorphy or apomorphy? Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42 (1): 63-69.

Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. 2004. Fine structure of adhesive devices of Strepsiptera (Insecta). Arthropod Structure and Development 33: 31-43.

Anton, E. & Beutel, R.G. 2004. On the head morphology and systematic position of Helophorus (Coleoptera: Hydrophiloidea: Helophoridae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 242: 313-346.

Beutel, R.G. & Komarek, A. 2004. Comparative study of thoracic structures of adults of Hydrophiloidea and Histeroidea with phylogenetic implications (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). Organisms Diversity and Evolution 4: 1-34.

Alarie, Y., Beutel, R.G. & Watts, C.H.S. 2004. Larval morphology of three species of Hygrobiidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscoidea) with phylogenetic considerations. European Journal of Entomology 101: 293-311.

Korte, A., Ribera, I., Beutel, R.G. & Bernhard, D. 2004. Interrelationships of Staphyliniform groups inferred from 18S and 28S rDNA sequences, with special emphasis on Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera, Staphyliniformia). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42 (4): 281-288.

Pabst, T.; Richter, S. (2004): The larval development of an Australian limnadiid clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata), and a comparison with other Limnadiidae. Zoologischer Anzeiger 243, 99-115.

Wirkner, C.S.; Richter, S. (2004): Improvement of micro anatomical research by combination of corrosion casts with micro CT and 3D reconstruction exemplified on the circulatory organs of the woodlouse. Microscopy Research and Technique 64: 250-254.

Ericsson, R. & Olsson, L. (2004) Patterns of spatial and temporal visceral arch muscle development in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). J. Morphol. 261, 131-140 (With cover).

Ericsson, R., Cerny, R., Falck, P. & Olsson, L. (2004) The role of cranial neural crest cells in visceral arch muscle positioning and morphogenesis in the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Developmental Dynamics, 231, 237-247.

Levit, G., Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2004) The integration of Darwinism and evolutionary morphology: Alexej Nikolajevich Sewertzoff (1866-1936) and the developmental basis of evolutionary change J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 302B, 343-254.

Vera Candioti, M. F., Haas, A. (2004) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the hyobranchial apparatus of Hyla nana tadpoles (Anura: Hylidae). Cuadernos de Herpetología 18(1):3-15

Hertwig, S., de Sá, R. O., Haas, A. (2004) Phylogenetic signal and the utility of 12S and 16S in frog phylogeny. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42:2-18

Göbbel, L.; Fischer, M.S.; Smith, T.D.; Wible, J.R. & Bhatnagar, K.P. 2004 The vomeronasal organ and associated structures of the fetal African elephant, Loxodonta africana (Proboscidea, Elephantidae). Acta Zool. 85: 41 - 52.

Witte, H.; Hoffmann, H.; , Hackert, R.; Schilling, C.; Fischer, M.S. & Preuschoft, H. 2004 Biomimetic Robotics should be based on Functional Morphology. J. Anat. 204: 331 - 342.

Ritzmann, R., Quinn, R.D., Fischer, M.S. 2004 Convergent evolution and locomotion through complex terrain by insects, vertebrates and robots. Arthropod Struct. Develop. 33: 361 - 379.


Schunger, I., Beutel, R.G. & Britz, R. 2003. Morphology of immature stages of Prostomis mandibularis (Prostomidae, Tenebrionoidea, Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 100: 357-370.

Beutel, R.G., Anton, E. & Jäch, M.A. 2003. On the evolution of adult head structures and the phylogeny of Hydraenidae (Coleoptera, Staphyliniformia). Journal of Zoological Systematics andEvolutionary Research 41 (4): 256-275.

Beutel, R.G. & Raffaini, G.B. 2003. A new record of Sphaeriusidae for Argentina (Coleoptera: Myxophaga). Coleopterologische Rundschau 73: 1-6.

Balke, M., Ribera, I. & Beutel, R.G. 2003. Dytiscoidea incertae sedis: Aspidytes wrasei gen.n, sp.n. - An enigmatic new adephagan beetle discovered in Shaanxi, China (Coleoptera). Water Beetles of China III, Vol. LII: 53-66.

Olsson, L. (2003) Cell migration, pattern formation cell fate during head development in lungfishes and amphibians. Theory in Biosciences 122, 252-265.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2003) The road from Haeckel. The Jena tradition in developmental morphology and the origins of Evo-Devo. Biology and Philosophy 18, 285-307.

Hossfeld, U., Olsson, L. & Breidbach, O. (2003) Carl Gegenbaur (1826-1903) and his influence on the development of evolutionary morphology (Editorial). Theory in Biosciences 122, 105-108.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2003) The history of comparative anatomy in Jena - an overview. Theory in Biosciences 122, 109-126.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2003) The Beginning of Carl Gegenbaur´s Career: A Forgotten Early Paper on Axolotl Skull Morphology. Axolotl News 30, 19-23.

Hossfeld, U., Nöthlich R. & Olsson, L. (2003) Haeckel's literary hopes dashed by materialism? Nature 424, 875.

Olsson, L. & Hoßfeld, U. (2003) Ernst Haeckel´s Swedish correspondents. Uppsala Newsletter for the History of Science 34, 1-3.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2003) Ernst Haeckel and the Nobel Prize for literature in 1908. Uppsala Newsletter for the History of Science 34, 3-4.

Das, I., Haas, A. (2003) A new species of Kalophrynus (Anura: Microhylidae) from Central Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 51(1):113-117

Haas, A. (2003) The phylogeny of frogs as inferred from primarily larval characters. Cladistics 19:23-89.

Mitgutsch, C. (2003) On Carl Gegenbaur's theory on head metamerism and the selection of taxa for comparisons. Theor Biosci 122, 204-229.

Lilje, K.E.; Tardieu, C. & Fischer, M.S. 2003 Scaling of long bones in ruminants with respect to the scapula. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 41: 118-126

Preuschoft, H.; Schmidt, M.; Hayama, S. & Okada, M. (2003): The influence of three-dimensional movements of the forelimb on the shape of the thorax and its importance for erect body posture. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 243, 9-24.


Beutel, R.G. & Hörnschemeyer, T. 2002. Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Micromalthus debilis LeConte (Coleoptera: Micromalthidae). Systematic Entomology 27 (2): 169-190.

Hörnschemeyer, T., Beutel, R.G. & Pasop, F. 2002. Head structures of Priacma serrata Leconte (Coleoptera, Archostemata) inferred from x-ray tomography. Journal of Morphology 252 (3): 298-314.

Beutel, R.G. & Hörnschemeyer, T. 2002. Description of the larva of Rhipsideigma raffrayi (Coleoptera, Archostemata), with phylogenetic and functional implications. European Journal of Entomology 99: 53-66.

Grebennikov, V.V. & Beutel, R.G. 2002. Morphology of the minute larva of Ptinella tenella, with special reference to effects of miniaturisation and the systematic position of Ptiliidae (Coleoptera: Staphylinoidea). Arthropod Structure and Development 31: 157-172.

Ribera, I., Beutel, R.G., Balke, M. & Vogler, A.P. 2002. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London 269: 2351-2157.

Gorb, S., Beutel, R.G., Gorb, E.V., Jiao, Y., Kastner, V., Niederegger, S., Popov, V.L., Scherge, M., Schwarz, U. & Vötsch, W. 2002. Structural design and biomechanics of friction-related releasable attachment devices in insects. Integrative Comparative Biology 42: 1127-1139.

Olsson, L., Moury, J.D., Carl, T.F., Håstad, O.,& Hanken, J. (2002) Cranial neural crest cell migration in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui: Molecular heterogeneity within and among migratory streams. Zoology, 105, 3-13.

Falck, P., Hanken, J. & Olsson, L. (2002) Cranial neural crest emergence and migration in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Zoology 105, 195-202.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2002) From the Modern Synthesis to Lysenkoism, and back? Science 297, 55-56.

Hossfeld, U. & Olsson, L. (2002) Documenting Lysenkoism. Response to letter from Horst Malke. Science 297, 1646-1647.

Schier, F., Krebs, U., Fröber, R., Haas, A. (2002) Three dimensional reconstruction of the anorectal continence organ in a 14 week-old fetus. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 37(6): 912-915.

Arms, A.; Voges, D.; Fischer, M.S.; Preuschoft, H. 2002 Arboreal locomotion in small New World monkeys. Z. Morph Anthropol. 83: 243-263.

Witte, H.; Preuschoft ; Fischer, M.S. 2002 The importance of the evolutionary heritage of locomotion on flat ground in small mammals for the development of arboreality. Z. Morph. Anthropol. 83: 221-233.

Witte, H.; Hackert, R.; Lilje, K.E.; Wagner, H.; Seyfarth, A.; Blickhan, R.; Preuschoft, H.; Fischer, M.S. 2002 Biological inspiration of robotics. Anthropol. Sci. 111: 73

Fischer, M.S.; Schilling, N.; Schmidt, M.; Witte, H. 2002 Basic limb kinematics of small therian mammals. J. exp. Biol. 205: 1315-1338.

Witte, H.; Biltzinger, J.; Hackert, R.; Schilling, N.; Schmidt, M.; Reich, C.; Fischer, M.S. (2002): Torque patterns of the limbs of small therian mammals during locomotion on flat ground. J. Exp. Biol. 205(9): 1339-1353.

Schmidt, M.; Voges, D.; Fischer, M.S. (2002): Shoulder movements during quadrupedal locomotion in arboreal primates. Z. Morph. Anthropol. 83, 235-242.

Wu G, Siegler S, Allard P, Kirtley C, Leardini A, Rosenbaum D, Whittle M, D'Lima DD, Cristofolini L, Witte H, Schmid O, Stokes I; ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion--part I: ankle, hip, and spine. International Society of Biomechanics. Standardization and Terminology Committee of the International Society of Biomechanics. J Biomech. 2002 Apr;35(4):543-8.